2019-01-20

华为:党国之利器?

转发此新闻:
德国计划设置5G标准移动通信网络。问题是:谁来负责建设?会不会是华为?这安全吗?谁能替代它?

Symbolbild Huawei (picture-alliance/NurPhoto/J. Arriens)
除了华为之外,德国5G建设还有什么选项?


很多德国人使用华为手机,并且,很可能不会有任何顾虑。但是,数星期来传出很多让人扫兴的消息,毕竟还是叫某些人犯起嘀咕:这个来自中国的神秘企业到底怎么样?相关腐败和间谍指控当真?这家企业不受国家和情报机构的控制?

处在世界另一段的某个专制国家是否知道单纯可爱的孩子们通过Whatsapp相互传递何种信息,这是一回事;而某个装备商能监控、甚至操控整个网络,那就是另一回事儿了。现在所涉及的便是在德国建设5G移动通信网络一案。

此外,事情也关系到很多钱:即使对强大的德国国民经济来说,建设5G标准移动通信网络也不失为一个大动作。杜伊斯堡-埃森大学电信经济教授格波特(Torsten Gerpott)指出,虽尚不能有根据地预言最终成本,但他估计,未来20年内,投资规模会多达300亿至800亿欧元。

全球范围抵抗增强
无论如何,与像华为这样的一个不透明网络装备商密切交往,不啻于同中国情报机构有密切联系,这样的疑虑不易消除。在其它国家,人们对此颇有意识;
某些国家且已采取行动。澳大利亚和新西兰将华为排除在了本国5G网络扩建项目之外;挪威和波兰亦作同样考虑。

本周三(116日),美国媒体报道说,美国司法当局正对华为展开涉嫌从事工业间谍行为的刑事调查。华为暂时不愿对此案表态。此案既出,华为事实上现在就无缘在美参与提供网络装备。

在加拿大,同华为的关系已经变得很错综复杂,并显然已有悲剧意味:因美国有关当局怀疑华为财务总管孟晚舟违反美政府对伊朗的制裁规定,她在途径加拿大时被捕。

Kanada, Vancouver: Huawei Finanzchefin Meng Wanzhou (picture-alliance/AP/D. Dyck) 
 孟晚舟在加拿大被捕,在交保释金后获假释


孟晚舟乃华为创办人任正非之女。显然,作为报复,在这名华为女高管被捕后,两名加拿大人在中国遭拘押;还有,几天前,对另一名已在中国系狱的加拿大人的有期徒刑被改判为极刑。他有可能被处死。

从事间谍?我们真的没有!
华为总裁任正非很少对媒体露面。鉴于对其企业的大量指控,他到底还是暂时放弃了这一不显山露水的惯常做法。他对美国新闻界代表称,从未被政府要求过"提供非法信息"。他还表示,"我爱我的国家,我支持共产党,但我绝不会做有损于世界上任何其它国家的事情。"

无论如何,德国联邦经济部长阿尔特迈尔迄今对让华为参与扩建德国5G网络没有顾虑。联邦信息技术安全局(BSI)也未对华为的参与提出过具体质疑,并拒绝对华为实施制裁。德国工业联合会主席坎普夫(Dieter Kempf)提醒说,不能因一个迄今无根据的怀疑就将华为排除出5G网络扩建项目。

经济学家格波特也提醒有关方面需保持冷静。他强调指出,对这家中国康采恩提出的指控远未得到证实,"眼下出现的简直就是对华为的一个先期判决。没有强有力的证据证实,(华为)有过触犯法律行为。"

Ren Zhengfei, Präsident Huawei (Getty Images/AFP/F. Coffrini) 
 华为总裁任正非不喜公开露面。不过,眼下他别无选择。


欧洲也有其他选项
另外,在德国的5G网络扩建项目上,中国人并非肯定就能拿到订单。他们虽被看好,因为,他们是最大的竞争者,而且,如格波特所观察到的那样,他们"以价格上咄咄逼人的姿态,跻身市场"

杜塞尔多夫海因里希·海涅大学经济学教授海梅斯霍夫(Ulrich Heimeshoff)也出于同样的理由认为华为享有优先地位。他指出,"一般来说,但凡投标,首先便是看价格"

不过,目前共有3家竞争:除华为外,还有爱立信(Ericsson)和诺基亚(Nokia)。格波特指出,这3家企业分享着网络装备商市场的80-85%。

虽然,就在本周,诺基亚宣布,计划裁减3500名在德员工中的500多人,但格波特表示,绝不能将之视为投降的信号,相反,"爱立信和诺基亚进展顺利。"

价格并不是一切
在招标描述方面,联邦德国作为网络运营者有多种可能,责成装备商的所作所为必须能够排除、至少极不容易从事经济间谍或其它窃密行为。竞争问题专家海梅斯霍夫指出,"一般来说,它首先将属于联邦信息技术安全局的任务范畴,而该机构的负责人也已乐观表态,称他的机构能胜任这一任务"

格波特亦持相同看法。他指出,联邦信息技术安全局必须制订、颁布安全标准,保障网络运营者不会被悄悄绕开。他表示,虽然该机构也不是无懈可击,但此类要求的发展乃是一种动态进程,该机构必须继续予以推进,并强制实施,以最小化潜在的间谍行为可能。





来源:德国之声

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